Saturday, July 14, 2018

A Sweet Summer Treat from the Garden: Lemon Verbena Ice Cream with a Blueberry Swirl

One of the happiest plants in my garden this summer is my Lemon Verbena.  Not only does it not seem to be fazed by our extreme heat and humidity…it is thriving.  I have never grown it before, so its resilience and determination have been a surprise.  Its perky presence on my patio is a welcome sight…  Even if its use were only ornamental, that would be enough for it to have earned it an annual spot in my garden.  But of course, this lovely herb has other uses as well…many of them culinary.

Prior to this summer I was familiar with Lemon Verbena because of its popularity in France (where it goes by the name of Verveine).  It is a favorite there—in both its fresh and dried form—for making tisanes (or herbal tea).   If you have a plant, you can make a tisane to enjoy this evening:  simply snip off a sprig (or two) and place in a cup or mug.  Add water that is just off the boil.  Let steep for five minutes or so…  Then enjoy.  There is no need to remove the leaves before you sip.  The flavor will continue to get stronger as it sits…but not unpleasantly so.

I have enjoyed tisanes made at the home of my best friend from college (a Francophile for as long as I have known her—and who seeks out a Lemon Verbena plant every summer to make her beloved tisane de verveine), but had never considered getting a plant of my own.  But this year, I scheduled a joint cooking class featuring the abundant produce of midsummer with my chef friend Nancy.  Nancy planned to prepare an Italian jam tart and I wanted to make something—preferably ice cream—to go with it.  As I thought about possible flavors, lavender honey came to mind…but I have already taught that.  It was a short leap from lavender (an herb forever associated with France, in my mind) to verveine. 

Lemon Verbena is often used to flavor desserts—either by steeping a liquid (as for the tisane) or infusing some sugar.  To infuse sugar, simply put some bruised leaves in a jar with some sugar, cover tightly and let sit for a couple of weeks—shaking every few days to break up clumps that will begin to form as the sugar absorbs the moisture in the fresh herbs.  When the infusion is done, strain out the herbs and store the sugar tightly covered.  Deborah Madison in her book Local Flavors recommends using about a quarter cup of leaves to infuse two cups of sugar.  The sugar is especially nice used in something simple like a pound cake or shortbread cookies.

Nancy chose to use blueberries (from a local patch) in her jam tart.  The combination of the blueberry tart with the lemon verbena ice cream was fantastic.  I’m guessing that the combination would have been pretty fine with just about any jam made with the abundant berries or stone fruits of midsummer.

Because I liked the combination of the blueberries with the lemon verbena so much, the recipe I’m sharing today is the Lemon Verbena ice cream that I made for class…with a blueberry swirl.  You can of course make the ice cream without the swirl and serve it with any number of the jam and summer fruit based desserts I have posted over the years (jam tartjam barsmixed berry crumble bars…)…but I have been enamored by the idea of a marbled lemon verbena ice cream ever since I ran across a lemon verbena and raspberry swirl ice cream while I was working on my recipe.  You could of course make that exact flavor with some homemade raspberry compote.  I also think blackberry (if you strain out the seeds) would make a great combination with the lemon verbena too.

As far as the ice cream itself goes, I used the standard formula that I use in all of my ice creams.  I use half milk and half cream and for every cup of cream/milk I use 2 egg yolks and 50 grams of sugar or honey.  I usually only incorporate a small amount of honey (mostly because I like the way an invert sugar gives a softer and smoother texture to the finished ice cream), but for this ice cream I used half honey so that you can actually taste the honey…it is delicious in combination with the floral taste of the lemon verbena. 

Finally, I have given the amount of lemon verbena leaves by weight.  It is my habit to cook and bake this way and it is a much more accurate way of measuring something like leaves that are kind of difficult to quantify (I’m guessing that one person’s “packed cup” of leaves would not weight the same as another’s).  But since a lot of American bakers still don’t have a scale, I’m including a way to measure without it.  Simply cut the leaves in rough 1/2 inch lengths and then drop them lightly into a 3/4 cup measure.  When you get to the top, you have enough. 

But having said all that, I think you would end up with a pretty fine ice cream if you just grabbed a nice big handful of leaves.  Your plant will be very happy and grow bigger after you have “pruned” it to make ice cream, too.  So much so that you will just have to acquire an evening herb tea habit …. or make some infused sugar (so you can have cake or cookies with your tea) …and of course, make more ice cream.

Lemon Verbena & Honey Ice Cream
with a Blueberry Swirl

1 1/2 c. (225g.) blueberries
1/4 c. (50 g.) sugar
1/2 T. lemon juice

2 c. milk
Pinch of salt
10 g. lemon verbena leaves, cut cross-wise in rough 1/2-inch pieces (you should have about 3/4 c. loosely layered cut leaves)
2 c. cold heavy cream
8 egg yolks
1/2 c. sugar
1/3 c. raw honey (4 oz.)

Wash the blueberries and place them in a small saucepan with the sugar and lemon juice.  Set the pan over moderately high heat and cook, stirring constantly until the sugar is dissolved and the blueberries begin to simmer.  Cook at an active simmer/low boil, stirring occasionally (and mashing the berries as you do), until you have a thick, syrup-y compote.  This will take about 7 to 10 minutes and you should have 3/4 c. compote when you are done..  Cool to room temperature.  Transfer to a covered container and chill until cold.  (Compote may be made several days ahead.  Store in the refrigerator.)

Place the milk and salt in a medium-sized, non-reactive saucepan.  Heat to just under a simmer.  Remove from the heat, add the verbena leaves, cover and let steep for an hour to an hour and a half (depending on how strong you want the flavor to be).

When ready to make the ice cream base, strain out the verbena, pressing hard with a spatula or ladle to extract as much of the liquid as you can. Discard the verbena. Place the chilled heavy cream into a large bowl and place the strainer used to strain out the verbena over this bowl.   

Return the infused milk to the heat and bring to a boil. While the milk is heating, whisk the egg yolks with the sugar until smooth and thick. When the milk boils, temper the egg yolks by gradually whisking in about half to two-thirds of the hot milk. Stir the tempered egg mixture back into the saucepan and place the pan over medium heat. Cook, stirring constantly, until the custard is thickened and forms a path when you draw your finger across the back of the spoon (if you like. you may check the temperature with an instant read thermometer—it should be about 170° to 175°). 

Immediately strain the custard into the bowl of cold cream. Add the honey and stir until the honey has melted. Cover and refrigerate until thoroughly chilled (eight hours or overnight).

Freeze the ice cream in an ice cream machine according to the manufacturer’s instructions. When finished, transfer the ice cream from the churn to a chilled container.  Choose a 1 1/2 to 2 quart container that is shallow and wide. Working quickly, layer in a quarter of the verbena ice cream (smooth it out into an even layer).   Dollop and drizzle a scant third of the blueberry compote.  

It is not necessary to marble it in (it will marble naturally as you scoop it to serve it).  Repeat this layering of a quarter of the ice cream and a scant third of the compote two more times.  Add the remainder of ice cream, once again smoothing it out.  You should have a tablespoon or two of the compote left.  Dollop this over the surface of the ice cream, marbling it in a bit, if you like.  Cover the container and place in the freezer.  Freeze for at least an hour or two before serving.  

Makes about a quart and a half of ice cream.

Note:  My original idea for this ice cream was to just use a homemade blueberry jam for the swirl.  All of the jam makers out there know that this basically means using a substantially higher quantity of sugar (for this quantity of blueberries, around 1/2 cup plus 2 T.).  The texture of the frozen ribbon of blueberries when made with this higher quantity of sugar is quite smooth and suave.  Unfortunately, the overall effect on the ice cream is one of tooth shattering sweetness (at least to my palate). If your berries are very tart, you might consider increasing the sugar in the compote.  For moderately tart blueberries though, I love the counterpoint of the sweet, floral ice cream with the slightly tart swirl of fruit, and I am not bothered by the slight frosty-ness of the swirl when the blueberries are cooked with the lesser amount of sugar. 

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Friday, July 6, 2018

Brined Pork Chops with Fresh Apricot & Ginger Compote

Over the years the things I have chosen to post to my blog have been driven by a lot of different things.  Sometimes I post foods I make for my private dinner clients.  Occasionally—not often as I had originally planned—I post explanations and descriptions of basic cooking and baking techniques.  Most of the things I share come from two sources: the things I am working on/testing for my classes…and the seasonal/market driven foods I am making for my own table.  Recently I decided to design a class around things that were all already on my blog—a class filled with recipes from the latter of these two categories….things that I had come up with for my home table that we loved so much they ended up on my blog.
As I was putting the class together—gathering some favorite early summer recipes from over the years (Potato Salad with Spring Herb Pesto & Peas, Gemelli with Mushrooms, Sugar Snap Peas &Goat Cheese, Market Coleslaw with Sweet Corn, Kohlrabi & Carrots, and Pistachio & Strawberry Friands)—I thought of a recipe that has been on my “to make someday” list for a long time:  Pork Chops with Fresh Apricot Glaze from Maria Helm Sinskey’s book Vineyard Seasons.  I decided to add it to the class in order to force myself to finally make it.  I knew if I liked it that it would end up here.

I was so glad I added it to the syllabus.  It was delicious!  And I have to say that I wasn’t surprised.  I love Sinskey’s recipes.  I did end up altering the recipe quite a bit—not because I didn’t like the flavors…or her method…but rather because she cooked her chops on the grill (which I’m certain makes for very tasty chops…I’m just not a fan of standing out in the hot sun over a hot grill when I could be cooking in my cool(er), air-conditioned kitchen….) and she used bone-in chops.  Frankly, I think the bone-in chops would be delicious—but for my purposes both at home and in class, boneless makes more sense (the boneless chops slice nicely so that you can get two servings out of one thick chop for a dinner for smaller appetites….or nice tasting portions for a class).

The brine I used is a simple, basic brine from Samin Nosrat’s book Salt, Fat, Acid, Heat.  It is a brine that is intended to add moisture and seasoning. It has less salt (four percent salinity by weight) than a lot of brines (and less than the one Sinskey uses), but I like it like this because when I use it I just get a nice, juicy piece of pork—and not something that seems cured or ham-like.  Following Sinskey’s recipe I added some fresh ginger to the brine…but you could leave it out.  You can also add other aromatics, herbs and/or spices of your choice.  Because the brine is mild, you don’t have to rinse the brined meat, but I do any way.  When it comes to brined meats, when in doubt, I always rinse.  The meat will be fully seasoned within…and you don’t risk having way too much salt/sugar on the exterior.  Whether you rinse or not, be sure to dry the surfaces of the meat well before put it in the sauté pan or on the grill (if it’s wet it will stick and it won’t caramelize properly).

The brined pork is delicious.  But it is the apricot sauce/compote/glaze (it is quite versatile) that is the star of the show here.  Sweet….tangy…savory…  with a hint of heat (you can add more if you like)….  It is just so tasty.  The recipe makes what will seem like a generous quantity, but you will want it all.  It could also be used with chicken…or turkey…or even some nice baby back ribs.  I will be making it every summer from now on.

I altered the sauce from the original in only a couple of ways.  I leave it chunky instead of blending it to a purée.  Not only do I prefer the appearance of a chunky sauce, leaving it this way advertises the fact that you used fresh apricots (instead of jam or preserves, for example).  If you want to use it as a glaze or final swab for grilled meats, I think it would be best in its puréed form.

The other change is also fairly minor.  I have given a range for the amount of sugar to add as opposed to a set amount.  Apricots vary widely in sweetness and one batch might need very little sugar...while the next will be quite tart and need a lot.  I always start the sauce with the lesser amount and then after about twenty minutes of cooking—when the sauce is nearing its final consistency—I start tasting and adding more if necessary.  You are aiming for a sauce that is nicely balanced between tangy and sweet. 

The first time I made these pork chops I served it with Toasted Pine Nut Couscous and Wilted Greens.  I couldn’t believe how good it was. (Unfortunately I didn’t take a picture….)  I was so enamored with the these chops that I decided to make it for our Fourth of July celebration this year.  I served it with Sweet Corn Coleslaw and Étuvéed Baby Potatoes.  It was just the thing.  Hopefully I will discover a few other delicious pairings before the fleeting season for apricots is past....

Brined Pork Chops with Fresh Apricot & Ginger Compote

1/3 c. Morton’s kosher salt (or 80g. salt of your choice)
1/4 c. sugar (50 g.)
4 large cloves of garlic, peeled and lightly crushed
1/2 t. red pepper flakes
2 T. peeled and minced fresh ginger (20 g.—if you are weighing, simply slice the ginger)
1 bay leaf
 6 to 8 pork chops (Boneless loin or bone in rib—as you prefer, as long as
            they are nice thick—1 inch or more—chops)

Place the salt, sugar, garlic, pepper flakes, ginger and bay in a pot with 3 cups of water.  Bring to a simmer and simmer gently until all the salt & sugar has dissolved.  Remove from the heat and add 6 cups of cold/ice water.  Allow the brine to cool to room temperature.  Submerge the pork chops in the brine and refrigerate for 8 to 24 hours.  An hour before cooking, remove the chops from the brine (rinse, or not, as you prefer).  Pat dry before cooking.  Discard the brine.

Apricot Sauce:
2 to 2 1/2 T. olive oil
1 large or 2 medium shallots (about 2 oz.), finely diced
2 t. minced garlic
2 T. minced fresh ginger (20 g)
1/4 t. red pepper flakes
2 lbs. ripe apricots, halved, pitted and roughly diced
1/2 to 1 c. brown sugar (adjust to the sweetness of the apricots)
3 T. white wine vinegar
1 t. salt
2/3 c. water

Warm the olive oil in a wide sauce pan set over moderate heat.  Add the shallots, garlic, ginger and pepper flakes and sweat until tender—about 10 minutes.  Add the apricots and cook briefly, stirring until well coated in the shallot mixture. 

Add the remaining ingredients (starting with the smaller amount of sugar) 

and simmer until thickened and glossy—about 30 minutes (you should have about 2 2/3 to 3 c. compote).  

After about 20 minutes of cooking, begin tasting and add sugar as needed.  When the sauce is finished, taste again and correct the seasoning with salt, sugar and vinegar.

Prepare the pork chops:
Olive oil
Brined Pork Chops
Finished Apricot Glaze
1/2 to 2/3 c. white wine or water, optional

Preheat the oven to 400­°.  Heat an ovenproof sauté pan large enough to hold the chops in a single layer (or use two pans) over moderately high heat.  Film the pan with oil.  Add the chops to the pan.  Sear, turning once, until the chops are nicely browned.  

Smear the chops with some of the apricot glaze and turn a couple of times to coat.  Transfer the pan to a preheated 400° oven and cook until the chops are done to your liking (an instant read thermometer will read between 130° and 135° for medium).  Total cooking time (including the time on the stove and in the oven) will be about 7 to 10 minutes (for 1 inch boneless chops—more for bone -in or thicker chops).  Remove the pan from the oven and transfer the chops to a platter.

If the apricot glaze on the chops didn’t get too dark in the pan, make a quick pan sauce while the chops rest.  Place the pan over medium-high heat and add the white wine.  Bring to a simmer, scraping the pan well to release all the caramelized bits (if using two pans, combine the drippings into one pan) and reducing by half to two-thirds.  Add the remaining apricot glaze, along with any resting juices from the pork, to the pan and warm through.  

If the sauce is too thick, let it out with water…if too thin, reduce briefly.

Serve the pork chops with the warm apricot compote.  Serves 6 to 8 

Variation:  If you prefer, you may grill or broil the pork chops.  Puree the compote to make a smooth sauce.  After the first side is cooked, turn, brush with the sauce.  When the pork is almost done, turn again, brushing the remaining surface with the sauce and allowing each glazed surface to be exposed to the heat for a minute or two so the sauce will caramelize, but not burn.  Obviously there will not be any deglazings to combine with the remaining sauce.  Simply serve the remaining sauce on the side as you would with your favorite BBQ sauce. 

(Recipe adapted from The Vineyard Kitchen by Maria Helm Sinskey)

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Wednesday, June 27, 2018

Early Summer Lasagne with Sweet Shelling Peas, Zucchini & Spring Onions

It was not my intention to only write two blog posts during the month of June.  I have had ideas to share…and recipes….  But as has been increasingly the case as the years have passed, June has been insanely busy.  So here we are and June is just about over.

I’m sad to see it go.  I love the farmers’ market in June…the end of the spring crops meet the beginning of the summer ones—making for inspiring abundance and variety.  The recipe I am sharing today takes advantage of that moment, combining the shelling peas of late spring/early summer with the first of the summer’s zucchini crop in a surprisingly light lasagne.

“Light” is probably not the first word that you associate with lasagne.  But I think on balance that this lasagne can be called light.  It doesn’t include tons of sauce…or heavy fatty meats….or gobs of stretchy cheese.  What it does include are loads of those aforementioned green vegetables of June…along with a whisper of béchamel, a touch of salty prosciutto (to bring out the flavor of the green vegetables) and just enough cheese to hold it all together.

I adapted the recipe from Frank Stitt’s Bottega Favorita.  I admit to reducing the cheese a bit—and adding the prosciutto—but by and large it is his delicious recipe, and I can’t take a lot of credit for it. 

What I can take credit for is the biggest change I made—changing from traditional dried lasagne noodles to no-boil noodles.  I have already sung the praises of “no-boil” on two previous posts so I won’t spend a lot of time on it here.  Suffice it to say I think they are fantastic.  It is unlikely I will ever make a lasagne using traditional dried noodles again.   If you have never used them this lasagne would be the perfect place to give them a try.

Early Summer Vegetable Lasagne

1 1/4 lb. (about 3) medium zucchini
Olive oil
Salt & freshly ground pepper, to taste
1 medium leek, halved, thinly sliced cross-wise and thoroughly rinsed
1 bunch spring onions, trimmed (use white and equal amount of green), or 1 sweet onion (like a Vidalia), halved—thinly sliced
2 T. butter, divided
2 oz. thinly sliced prosciutto, cut crosswise into 1/4-inch strips
1 c. (240 g) whole milk ricotta
1 oz. (1/3 c) finely grated Pecorino Romano
1 T. finely sliced chives
Zest of one lemon
1 clove garlic, finely grated with a microplaner or smashed to a purée with a pinch of salt
Pinch of cayenne
1 1/3 c. whole milk
2 T. flour 
Pinch nutmeg 
8 "no-boil" lasagna (half of an 8 oz. box)
1 c. peas, thawed if frozen, blanched until just tender (refresh under cold running water) if fresh
6 oz. Fontina or Fontal, coarsely grated
1 oz. (1/3 c) finely grated Parmesan

Top and tail the zucchini.  Slice lengthwise into 1/4-inch thick slabs (the widest setting on my Benriner slicer is perfect).  Spread the slabs in a single layer on a lightly oiled baking sheet.  Brush with oil and season with salt and pepper.  

Roast in a 450° to 475° oven until tender, beginning to brown in spots and most of the moisture has evaporated....about 10 to 15 minutes.  Set aside to cool.

Meanwhile, melt a half of a tablespoon of butter with a tablespoon of oil in a large sauté pan set over moderate heat.  Add the leeks and onions along with a generous pinch of salt and some freshly ground black pepper and toss to coat in the fat.  Cook until the leeks/onions begin to sizzle and steam in the pan.  Reduce the heat to low, cover with a tight fitting lid, and cook until the leeks have collapsed and are very tender—this will take about 15 minutes for early spring onions and leeks....maybe 30 minutes or more for storage leeks and onions.  Uncover and add the prosciutto and stir to distribute evenly.  Continue to cook for a minute or two.  If there should be a lot of liquid remaining in the pan, increase the heat and cook uncovered until the liquid has mostly evaporated.  Taste and correct the seasoning and set aside to cool.

Place the ricotta, pecorino, lemon zest, chives, garlic, and a pinch of cayenne in a medium-sized bowl.  Mix until well combined, seasoning to taste with salt and pepper.

Prepare the béchamel: In a small saucepan, bring the milk to a simmer; keep hot.  (Alternatively, heat the milk in a microwave proof container of some kind.)  In another medium saucepan, melt 1 1/2 T. of butter over medium heat.  When the foam subsides, whisk in the flour.  Cook stirring constantly for a minute or so—the roux will be bubbly and straw yellow.  Remove from the heat and pour in half of the hot milk, whisking constantly until smooth—it will thicken immediately.  Add the remaining milk.  Return to the heat and stir constantly until the sauce returns to a simmer.  Taste and season as desired with salt, pepper and nutmeg.

When you are ready to build the lasagne, oil a square 2-quart baking dish (an 8 1/2- by 8 1/2-inch Pyrex is perfect) and bring a shallow pan of water just to the boil and remove from the heat.  Arrange these two items...along with all the other components—on your work space so that you have easy access to everything.   Add two of the noodles to the pan of hot water.  Spread a couple of tablespoons of béchamel in the bottom of the oiled dish.  

Lift the noodles out of the pan. (They should not be soft or flexible at this're just giving them a head start by soaking them briefly—less than a minute.)  Let the excess water drip back in to the pan and arrange them in a single layer in the prepared baking dish.  Add a couple more noodles to the pan of hot water (to soak while you build the first layer).  Spread/daub a third of the ricotta mixture over the noodles, 

followed by a third of the onion mixture, a third of the peas, 

and a third of the zucchini slices.  

Drizzle a scant third cup of béchamel over all and finish with a scattering of a quarter of the Fontina (1 1/2 oz).  

Beginning with the noodles, repeat this layering two more times.  Finish with the last two (soaked) noodles, the remaining third cup of the béchamel (spreading evenly)

and a scattering of the remaining Fontina mixed with the Parmesan.

Cover the pan with a piece of aluminum foil that has been brushed on the underside with olive oil (or sprayed with pan spray), tenting the foil slightly if possible so that it isn't touching the top of the lasagne.  Bake in a 350° oven until the Fontina on top has just melted—about 25 to 30 minutes.  Uncover and continue to bake until the lasagne is bubbling around the edges and the top is beginning to brown around the edges...another 10 to 15 minutes.  Let the lasagne rest for 10 to 15 minutes.  Cut with a sharp knife and serve.  Serves 6.

Notes: To make a 13- by 9-inch lasagne, increase the recipe by half.

(Recipe adapted from Bottega Favorita by Frank Stitt)


Sunday, June 10, 2018

French-Style Baked Eggs (Oeufs en Cocotte) with Spring Onions

I love eggs.  I love them on things, in things…and all by themselves.  I can’t imagine a life without eggs.  They really are a perfect food.  Over the years I have written countless posts that feature eggs…from the simple (poached, fried, baked on a bed of vegetables) the more complex (frittatas, tortillas, quiche, savory bread pudding)…to desserts where eggs play a prominent and irreplaceable role (ice creams, custards, tarts, bread & butter puddings).  I am not alone in my feelings. Yesterday as I was reading some of the tributes written about Anthony Bourdain, I happened across his thoughts on eggs:  “An egg in anything makes it better.”  Quite so.

I have for years included a classic French egg dish (Oeufs en Cocotte) in my spring brunch class.  I have always intended to post a recipe for this dish, but have refrained for a couple of reasons.  The first is that versions of this recipe can be found everywhere….both in cookbooks and on line.  But this of course has not stopped me with other classic recipes when I thought I had something to add to the conversation.  So the main reason is really the second one.  And that is that this dish is deceptive in its simplicity.  It requires being engaged with your senses in a way that is difficult to describe.  I can give some guidelines…but you will have to practice getting it done just to your liking in your kitchen…with your equipment.  (As one writer said when describing how to know when an egg en cocotte is done:  It’s “…the egg dish that's done when it's done.”The good news is that you will get to eat eggs while you practice.   And since Oeufs en Cocotte are fantastic for brunch…or lunch…or dinner—accompanied by all kinds of delicious vegetable and meat side dishes—you should be able to create lots of opportunities to practice. 

The nuts and bolts of method for Oeufs en Cocotte are easy to describe:  Butter a ramekin. Add a few cooked vegetables.  My favorite thing is softly cooked leeks or spring onions…and a little cream—but you could add almost anything:  cooked greens, a vegetable medley like ratatouille, mushroom duxelles, a bit of ham or smoked salmon, a thick tomato compote, etc…

When you place your garnish in the ramekin, make a little divot on the center.  This will help center the yolk.  Crack an egg into a small dish and then tilt the egg into the prepared ramekin, being careful to center the yolk as much as you can. 

Pour a little cream over the top…or add a dab of butter…and season lightly with salt and pepper.  Place the ramekins in a baking dish lined with a towel.  When you are ready to bake, add boiling water to the pan to come half way up the sides of the ramekins.  Cover with foil and bake, uncovering a couple minutes before you think they will be done.  When they are done, serve right away (with buttered toast).    

So what exactly is “done?”  To me these eggs are perfect when the white is just set—but still a bit delicate and trembly—and the yolks are a barely thickened liquid.  Some people like them when the whites are a bit more solid and the yolk is even more thickened.  But this difference is a narrow window—and either way is, as far as I am concerned, a successfully baked Oeuf en Cocotte.  Visually you can tell when the white is done—it will go from clear to white.  Even if you have poured a thin film of cream over the top, you will still be able to see when this happens.  The problem is that once this happens, the yolk will be well on its way to setting too.  (Whites begin to coagulate between 144° and 149° and yolks begin to coagulate between 149° and 158°.  From 160° to 180° the whole egg gets progressively firmer until it becomes fully coagulated and hard.)  Herein lies the rub—an uncooked white is unappetizing…and an overcooked yolk, while not unappetizing, is not the goal of this dish.  If you pull your eggs out of the oven too soon, the white will be undercooked…too late, and the yolk will be hard…and the length of time between these two outcomes might be just a minute or two.

I have given an oven temperature and a range of cooking time in my recipe below—but this is just to get you in the ball park.  You will need to look at the eggs....perhaps prod the surface of the egg with your finger…or jiggle the ramekin itself to see if the eggs are where you want them. When you are first getting started, inserting an instant read thermometer in the white (right next to the yolk…but not in the yolk, as this will cause the yolk to break before it gets to the eater) will tell you a couple of things.  It will give you a temperature—I think you should be around 155°—and it will give you the added visual clue that the egg is done because when the white is done, the tip of the probe will come out clean (you can use a paring knife to test this latter thing if you don’t have an instant read thermometer).   And of course it is important that you do all of this checking quickly so that your oven temperature doesn't drop drastically.

The eggs bake best in a moderate to moderately hot oven.   They will bake well at higher temperatures, but your window of time when they are just right will be narrower.  You will have a much wider window of time if the temperature is low—but too low and they will take a longer and much more unpredictable length of time to bake (you and your fellow eaters will be standing around, tapping your toes, while the toast gets cold as you wait).

It is for this latter reason that you want to make sure your water bath (the point of which is to stabilize the ambient cooking temperature—helping the eggs to cook uniformly, protecting the edges of the egg until the center bakes) is made with boiling water (not just tap water).  Loading a full pan of hot tap water into the oven will significantly lower the temperature of the oven and lengthen your cooking time by an unpredictable amount. 

By the same logic, if you are feeding a crowd…and perhaps putting a very large pan—or two or three smaller pans—of eggs into the oven, you might want to start out at a higher oven temperature (a sufficient volume of boiling water will still lower the oven temperature).  When I prepare 32 eggs in 4 to 6 pans (in two ovens) for my classes, I bump the oven temperatures up to a 450° to 500° starting point.  I am able to observe with an oven thermometer that the oven temperature drops almost immediately after I put the pans in the ovens to below 400°.   Some ovens recover well enough that you don’t need to alter the temperature for a large number…or be careful to heat your water to boiling.  All ovens are different.  If you bake/cook a lot, you probably already know if you will need to make some of these adjustments.  If you don’t know, then making Oeufs en Cocotte would be a great exercise in getting to know your oven better. 

One final observation.  I have seen several recipes that encourage you to put two eggs per ramekin for “larger appetites.”  This seems like a bad idea to me since it will necessarily put egg whites in the center of the ramekin….and not the yolks.  Since the center will be the last spot to come up to a coagulating temperature.  Keeping the yolks runny in this situation will probably mean that there will be undercooked white in the center.  While true that the yolks coagulate at a slightly higher temperature than the whites…and it might be technically possible to get the whites in the center set and still have two runny yolks…this would be a difficult thing to pull off.

If all of this is more detailed information than you like, I would encourage you to just print the recipe and jump in.  If you have difficulties in your first attempt, then return and read the above tips (which will make much more sense after you have some practice).  I would never want an excess of explanation to discourage anyone from trying to make Oeufs en Cocotte.  Once you have made them a time or two you will know that they are actually quite easy.  And they are a classic that belongs in everyone’s repertoire…perfect for a festive brunch…or a dinner for one when you are feeling under the weather…or just when you feel like pampering yourself.  

 French-style Baked Eggs with Spring Onions

1 c. thinly sliced spring onions (use roughly equal quantities of white and green)
1 to 2 T. thinly sliced green garlic (optional)
1 T. unsalted butter
6 T. Heavy cream
4 large eggs (room temperature)

Preheat oven to 375˚F.  Butter 4 4 oz. ramekins or custard cups.  Line a roasting pan with a kitchen towel or a double thickness of paper towels and place the custard cups in the roasting pan.  Set aside.
In a medium-sized sauté pan, melt the butter over medium heat. Add the spring onions and green garlic and toss to coat in the butter.  Add a pinch of salt, cover and cook over low heat until the onions are wilted and tender. If they release a lot of liquid as they cook, uncover during the last few moments of cooking to allow the liquid to evaporate.  Set aside briefly to cool.  (The onions may be cooked ahead.  Cover and refrigerate.  Bring to room temperature before proceeding with the recipe.) 

Divide the onion mixture among the buttered ramekins.  Spread the mixture out, mounding it up a bit around the edges—you are making a "nest" for the egg that will help center the yolk.  Drizzle 1/2 T. of cream into each ramekin.

One at a time, crack eggs into a small bowl and then transfer the egg to a ramekin, centering the yolk as much as possible as you do.  

Carefully pour a tablespoon of cream over each egg.  Sprinkle each sparingly with salt. 

Pour boiling water into the roasting pan until it comes up to the same level as the eggs in the ramekins.  Cover the pan with foil.  Bake for 10 minutes.  Uncover and continue to bake until the white is opaque and just barely set—the yolk should still be liquid—another 2 to 4 minutes. (If you like, you make carefully insert an instant read thermometer into the white right next to the yolk—be careful not to pierce the yolk.  (The temperature should read somewhere between 155° and 160° for jiggly white and liquid yolk.)  Remove the pan from the oven.  The eggs will hold in their hot water bath for a few minutes.  If you know you will need to hold them, undercook them slightly as they will continue to cook as they sit.  They should be served as soon as possible.  Sprinkle each with a bit of freshly ground black pepper and serve with buttered toast.

Serves 4

Notes & Variations:
  • You will probably have to experiment with baking times in your oven. I have given what works in my oven. Classically, oeufs en cocotte are baked uncovered, but this produces a hard surface and an undercooked white in my oven. You will find some sources that recommend as little as 7 minutes baking time (Julia Child). The initial temperature of your eggs will also make a difference—if your eggs are refrigerator cold, consider allowing them to sit in a bowl of hot tap water for a few minutes before cracking them into the saucers. 
  • If you like, sprinkle a bit of finely grated Parmesan or Pecorino over the egg before baking. 
  • The onions may be omitted for the simplest of baked eggs. 
  • Replace the onions with the same quantity of thinly sliced leek—one leek should yield a cup of thinly sliced leeks. 
  • Instead of onions, any finely cut, cooked vegetable may be used—diced sautéed mushrooms, a spoonful of ratatouille, minced braised artichokes, a few cooked fresh peas, etc. 
  • You may bake as many or as few ramekins at one time as you like (a French-style baked egg makes a wonderful lunch for one!). Simply adjust the size of the pan that you use for your hot water bath accordingly. For a baked egg for one, you could use a small oven-proof sauté pan or a metal pie pan. For two or three, a medium-sized sauté pan works well. Etc.